Angiography: An invasive test that pinpoints the exact location of a blockage within an artery, usually reserved for use with treatment. An x-ray is taken after injecting dye into an artery.


Guide Wire: A wire used to thread a peripheral treatment device (catheter, balloon, etc.) and position it within the artery.

Angioplasty: An interventional procedure where a balloon catheter is inserted into a diseased artery. The balloon is inflated, pushing plaque against the arterial wall to widen the artery, potentially restoring blood flow through a previously blocked artery.



Lesion: The diseased are in the artery.

Ankle Brachial Index (ABI): A simple, noninvasive test that compares how well the blood is flowing through the extremities by comparing the highest ankle systolic blood pressure with the highest brachial (arm) systolic blood pressure.



Major Amputation: An amputation of the lower extremity that is above the ankle.
Arteries: The tubular vessels that carry blood from the heart through the body.

Minimally Invasive: A procedure that is less invasive than open surgery. A minimally invasive procedure causes minimal damage of tissues at the point of entrance of instrument.


Atherectomy: An interventional procedure to modify, remove or debulk the built-up plaque within an artery.



Minor Amputation: An amputation of the foot or any part of the foot.
Atherosclerosis: Built-up plaque that causes narrowing or hardening of the arteries.

Media/Medial Integrity: The media is the middle layer of the artery wall. When the medial layer is damaged, restenosis quickens and reintervention may eventually be needed. By preserving the integrity of the medial layer, the risk of restenosis lessens.


Bypass Surgery: A vascular surgery where a blood vessel from another part of the patient's body or a tube made of synthetic material is used to bypass blockages in the artery. This allows blood to flow around the blockage and into the lower limb.



Occlusion: 100 percent blockage of the artery.
Calcium: Hardened (bone-like) deposits in the artery wall.

Outflow: Considered the tibial arteries where blood runs to the lower part of the leg from the above-the-knee arteries. Good outflow ensures good blood flow in the entire leg.


Claudication: Leg pain that occurs when walking or exercises and disappears when the activity stops.



Percutaneous: Administered, removed or absorbed by way of the skin, an an injection, needle biopsy, or transdermal drug.
Catheter: The long slender flexible tube for inserting into an artery; allows passage of fluid or small medical devices.

Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD): A life-threatening condition where a fatty material called plaque builds up on the inside walls of the blood vessels that carry blood from the heart to legs and arms.


Compliance: An artery's ability to yield to the forces of a device. Compliant arteries are flexible; noncompliant arteries are inflexible, usually due to calcium deposits, and do not easily yield to forces such as balloon pressures.



Plaque: A buildup of deposits within the wall of an artery. Plaque can be soft, fibrous, mixed or varying degrees of calcific.

Computed Tomographic Angiography (CTA): The use of x-ray and a contrast agent to show the arteries in the abdomen, pelvis and legs.



Restenosis: The reoccurrence of plaque buildup in an artery after it has been treated and opened.

Critical Limb Ischemia (CLI): The lack of blood flow to an extremity leading to ulcers or sores that don't heal. CLI is often a cause of toe or leg amputation.



Revascularization: The restoration of the blood circulation of an organ or area achieved by unblocking obstructed or disrupted blood vessels or by surgically implanting replacements.

Debridement: The surgical removal of foreign matter and dead tissue from a wound.



Stenosis: A narrowing or constriction of the diameter of the artery.

Diabetes: A disorder of carbohydrage metabolism, characterized by inadequate production or utilization of insulin. Diabetes results in excessive thirst, weight loss, and in some cases progressive destruction of small blood vessels, leading to complications, such as infections and gangrene of the limbs.



Stent: A tiny metal cylinder that is often placed in the artery after the angioplasty procedure with the intent to keep the diseased artery open.

Diastolic: The lowest arterial blood pressure of a cardiac cycle occurring during diastole of the heart - called also diastolic pressure.



Systolic: The highest arterial blood pressure of a cardiac cycle occurring immediately after systole of the left ventricle of the heart - called also systolic pressure.

Doppler and Ultrasound (Duplex) Imaging: The use of sound wave to measure the blood flow in an artery, an indication of blockages.



Thrombus: A clot of blood formed within a blood vessel and remaining attached to its place of origin.

Drive Shaft: The rotating shaft of the orbital device that transmits power to the crown and assists in sanding.



Target Lesion Revascularization: The re-intervention of a lesion that has previously been treated.
Endovascular: Refers to a procedure that is "within the vessel."



Information courtesy of Cardiovascular Systems, Inc.

GLOSSARY

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